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Early Edwardian Pennies

​​​Classification

Group 1 (1279)

The coins in this group consist of four main types, none of which is normally sub-divided. There is not a defining characteristic that is common to all four types, but on the first three the king’s title REX is rendered in full, a form not found anywhere else within the fifteen groups. The fourth type (1d) may be identified by its composite crown with plain headband and ‘detached’ ornaments ('arrowheads' or ‘pearls’). The illustrated coin is of type 1c.

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Group 2 (1280)

The coins in this group consist of two main types, neither of which is normally sub-divided. Coins can usually be attributed to this group if both the following criteria are met: firstly, the crown has a headband that is shaped to the (spearhead) ornaments, and secondly, the abbreviation marks (after R and ANGL) are short wedges. An additional indicator is the letter N, which is frequently reversed. The illustrated coin is of type 2a.

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Group 3 (1280 - 1281)

The coins in this group consist of seven main types, the last of which can be subdivided into three varieties based on different crowns. There is not a defining characteristic that is common to all seven types, but crescent-shaped or solid half-circle contractive marks (after R and ANGL) are the best single indicator. If the coin has these marks, it is most probably of this group, but wedges and commas are also used, and these occur on coins of other groups as well. The coin illustrated is of type 3g.

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Group 4 (1282 - 1289)

The coins in this group consist of five main types, the first of which can be subdivided into four varieties. There is not a defining characteristic that is common to all five types, but the abbreviation marks are always commas (variously sized) and the letter S is always of the thick-waisted non-composite type from a single punch. The last two types of the group are easily identified by pellets in the legends or on the breast. The coin illustrated is of type 4a.

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Group 5 (1289 - 1291)

The coins in this group consist of two main types, neither of which is normally sub-divided. The combination of a distinctive new crown with very widely spread side-fleurs, a pellet on the breast, and very large lettering usually makes the coins of this group easy to identify. It should be noted, however, that the pellet is sometimes indistinct or absent. The coin illustrated is of type 5b.

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Group 6 (between 1292 and 1296)

The coins in this group consist of two main types, the first of which is sub-divided into 6a1 and 6a2. The crown is of the same type as that of group 5, with very widely spread side-fleurs, but the lettering is much smaller and there is no pellet on the breast. The coin illustrated is of type 6b.

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edward-i-6b-penny-london-2.jpg

Group 7 (between 1292 and 1296)

The coins in this group consist of two main types, neither of which is usually sub-divided. The first type has a crown of the same type as those of group 5 and group 6, but the second type has a new crown with less spread side-fleurs. All London coins, and Canterbury coins of type 7a, have a rose on the breast and double-barred Ns, but Canterbury coins of type 7b, and coins of Bury and Durham lack these features. The letter S is sometimes of the composite type, last used in group 3. The coin illustrated is of type 7a.

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edward-i-7a-penny-london-2.jpg

Group 8 (between 1294 and 1299)

The coins in this group consist of three main types, none of which is normally subdivided. The crown of the first two types is a new one with a distinctive bell-shaped central fleur. The crown of the third type has a very arched headband and is not used elsewhere. Two useful indicators that a coin belongs to this group are a notched tail to the letter H in HYB, and frequently a strangely positioned apostrophe-like contractive mark after H (thus H’YB). The coin illustrated is of type 8b.

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Group 9 (c.1299 - c.1300/1301)

The coins in this group consist of three main types, the first two of which can each be further divided into two sub-types. The coins can often be identified by a star on the breast, but this is not always present. Early coins have the crown of 8b, but can be distinguished by the letter H, which in group 9 doesn’t have a notched tail. Later coins in the group frequently have either unbarred or pothook N’s. The coin illustrated is of type 9b2. It has a star on the breast and pothook N’s.

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Group 10 - primary phase (1301 - 1305)

Group 10 is the most complex in the entire series, and is now split into primary and secondary phases. The primary phase consists of six main types, some of which are further sub-divided. The king’s name is mostly shown as EDWAR or EDWARD rather than the almost invariable EDW of the earlier groups. The side-fleurs, from now on, are bifoliate. Contractive marks and various terminal stops are often used. The coin illustrated is of type 10ab3.

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Group 10 - secondary phase (1305 - 1310)

Group 10 is the most complex in the entire series, and is now split into primary and secondary phases. The secondary phase consists of six main types, some of which are further sub-divided. The king’s name is almost invariably shown as EDWA, the letter R is stub-tailed, and contractive marks are rare, although various terminal stops are often used. From this group onwards, the crown is the defining characteristic of virtually all the coin types. The coin illustrated is of type 10cf3.

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Group 11 (c.1310 - c.1314)

The coins in this group consist of four main types, some of which are further divided into sub-types. For most purposes the crown can be regarded as the defining characteristic of the group. It is bifoliate, with a broken left ornament (except on a few early coins), a toadstool-shaped right ornament, and a sharply hooked right fleur with a thin stalk. The rare exception to this rule is 11d, which reverts to using a crown of the previous group, but has the face and lettering of group 11 and an initial cross of four wedges. The illustrated coin is of type 11b.

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Group 12 (c.1314 - c.1317)

The coins in this group consist of three types, none of which is currently sub-divided. The defining characteristic of the group is the crown, which has a central ornament that is not shaped anything like the usual fleur-de-lis. However, the three types that make up the group each have their own distinctive type of ‘non-fleured’ crown. All three types are relatively scarce, but the least scarce is 12a, which is the type illustrated.

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Group 13 (c.1315 - c.1317)

This ‘group’ consists of a single type, which is not currently sub-divided. As with all the groups struck during the reign of Edward II, the crown is the defining characteristic. It is bifoliate, with a straight-sided central fleur (shaped like a double-bladed battle-axe), arrowhead ornaments (often with broken barbs), and usually a nick in the outer edge of the right fleur. If the crown is unclear, a useful means of corroboration is the initial cross, which is made up of four wedges. However, this form of cross also occurs on some coins of groups 11 and 12.

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Group 14 (1317/18 - 1319)

This ‘group’ consists of a single type, which is not currently sub-divided. As with all the groups struck during the reign of Edward II, the crown is the defining characteristic. It is bifoliate, with a very tall central fleur and vestigial ornaments consisting only of pointed stalks. Other features that can be used to corroborate the identification are a large smiling face with a pointed chin, and a blocky initial cross.

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Group 15 (1319 - 1335)

The coins in this group consist of four types, only the last of which is sometimes sub-divided. As with all the groups struck during the reign of Edward II, the crown is the defining characteristic. It is bifoliate, with well shaped side fleurs, and intermediate ornaments that incline to the left. The fourth type of this group, 15d, is rare, and was struck during the reign of Edward III. The coin illustrated is of type 15a.

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