Early Edwardian Pennies

Group 1

Type 1a (1279) - Spink 1380; North 1010

Coins of type 1a are readily identifiable by the use of Lombardic N’s on the obverse and Roman N’s on the reverse. The latter may be normal, reverse-barred or, very rarely, double-barred. The type also has a distinctive letter A, the top bar of which consists of two drooping wedges. The king’s title REX is shown in full, a feature shared only with 1b and 1c. Type 1a is rarely found as a true coin, it is usually muled with a reverse of type 1c, as the illustrated coin. The muling is readily identifiable by the letter A, which on 1c has a straight top bar.

King’s name: EDW
Mints: London only

Type 1b (1279) - Spink 1381; North 1011

Coins of type 1b are extremely rare and are readily identifiable by the absence of drapery on the bust. The obverse legend is also unique, and employs the shortest abbreviation of the king’s name in the series: ED REX: ANGLIE DNS HIBN (with both normal and reverse-barred N’s). The reverse is indistinguishable from those of type 1c.

King’s name: ED
Mints: London only

Type 1c (1279) - Spink 1382; North 1012

The draped bust of type 1c is similar to that of 1a, and the obverse legends are the same, but 1c is readily differentiated by the use of Roman N’s on both obverse and reverse. The N’s may be normal or reverse-barred, and both forms may occur on the same side of the coin. The king’s title REX is shown in full, a feature shared only with 1a and 1b. The letter A has a straight top bar. When contractive marks are used, they are usually wedges, but rarely, single pellets and colons also occur within the obverse legend.

King’s name: EDW
Mints: London only

Type 1d (1279) - Spink 1383; North 1013

Type 1d has larger lettering than the other types in this group, and the king’s title is shortened from REX to the single letter R, the form that became standard for the remainder of the series. For this reason, 1d is more likely to be confused with coins of group 2 than with other types in group 1. However, the coins can be differentiated by their crowns. The crown of 1d is composite with a wide plain headband and ‘detached’ ornaments, as type 1c. (The crowns of group 2 have thinner headbands, which are shaped to the ornaments.) N’s may be normal, reverse-barred or rarely unbarred. Contractive marks are wedges.

King’s name: EDW
Mints: London only

1d Note

A rare variety of this type exists with an annulet on the breast. The Foxes suggested it might indicate that the coins bearing it were struck for the benefit of the abbey of Reading. Coins of type 10ab3 with a similar mark are now known.

© R Blunt 2017-2021

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