Early Edwardian Pennies

Group 10 (primary phase)

Type 10ab1 (1301) - Spink 1409B; North 1039/1

Coins of type 10ab1 are transitional between 9b and 10, and a few early examples retain the trifoliate crown of the earlier type. On most coins, however, the crown is recut to a bifoliate form, as used on all subsequent types. The two varieties are designated 10ab1a and 10ab1b respectively. The portrait is also that of 9b, but the king’s name is now EDWAR, and new lettering with a distinctive tall-limbed A is used. True coins are known only of Canterbury, those of London are always muled with 9a or 9b reverses, and those of Newcastle with 10ab3 reverses. Gallery image 1 illustrates a 10ab1a variant with the right side-fleur only trifoliate. Gallery images 2 and 3 illustrate 10ab1b coins.

King’s name: EDWAR, EDWR (very rarely)
Mints: Canterbury, London, Newcastle-on-Tyne

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Type 10ab2 (1301 - 1302) - Spink 1409; North 1038/1

Coins of type 10ab2 continue to have the same modified bifoliate crown as those of 10ab1. The lettering, however, is new, with the W typically formed by two overlapping V’s. The abbreviation of the king’s name, EDWARD, is the longest form used in the series, and only occurs in 10ab2 (known as the ‘large lettering’ type) and 10ab3 (known as the ‘small lettering' type). Mules of 10ab2 with reverses of type 9 are far more common than true coins, and all London coins are muled in this way.

King’s name: EDWARD, EDWAR (anomalous)
Mints: Canterbury, Durham, London, Newcastle-on-Tyne

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Type 10ab3 (1302 - 1303) - Spink 1409; North 1038/2

The earliest coins of this type have the same modified bifoliate crown as those of 10ab1 and 10ab2, but a new taller crown is introduced during the issue. Coins with the earlier crown are designated 10ab3a (gallery image 1), and those with the later one are designated10ab3b (gallery image 2). The lettering is smaller than that of 10ab2 (the difference in height of the letter A is very noticeable), and includes three different forms of S (flat-topped, top-tilted and broken-backed). True coins occur of type 10ab3, but obverses also occur muled with reverses of type 9 and 10ab2.

King’s name: EDWARD
Mints: Bury, Canterbury, Durham, London

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Type 10ab4 (1303) - Spink 1409B; North 1039/2

Coins of type 10ab4 have the tall crown introduced during 10ab3. They are readily recognisable by the unusual abbreviation of the king’s name, EDWR. Another useful indicator is that there are usually contractive marks after both R's, ANGL and HYB. They are normally found as true coins.

King’s name: EDWR
Mints: Bury, Canterbury, London

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Type 10ab5 (1303 - 1305) - Spink 1409B; North 1039/3

Coins of type 10ab5 have either the tall crown introduced during 10ab3 (gallery images 1 and 2), or a later one of very similar form, but with blocky petals to the side fleurs (gallery image 3). The two crowns may be from the same punch in an earlier and recut state respectively. The king’s name is again abbreviated to EDWAR, but there is little chance of confusion with other coins in the group, as the form was only otherwise used in 10ab1, when the crown was of an earlier type. Early coins of 10ab5 have multiple contractive marks, as 10ab4 (see gallery image 1).

King’s name: EDWAR
Mints: Canterbury, Durham, London

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Type 10ab6 (1305) - Spink -; North 1039/4

Coins of type 10ab6 have either of the two crowns used during 10ab5. The king’s name on this type, however, is abbreviated to EDWA, so it is unlikely to be confused with any other coin in the group. EDWA is used almost universally throughout the secondary phase of group 10, but in all cases the crowns differ from those of 10ab6. The stub-tailed letter R, used throughout the secondary phase of group 10, occurs for the first time on 10ab6, as does the serpentine S, used until type 10cf2.

King’s name: EDWA
Mints: Bury, Canterbury, London

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10x Note

A coin type designated 10x has an obverse of type 9b or 9c and a reverse of type 10ab1 to 10ab3. An example is illustrated and further described in the Group 9 section of this article.

10ab2 Note

10ab2 was not described or illustrated either by Burns or the Foxes.

10ab3 Note 1

10ab3a corresponds to 10a in the Fox classification.

10ab3 Note 2

A rare variety of this type exists with an annulet on the breast. A similar mark occurs on a rare variety of type 1d, which the Foxes suggested might have been struck for the benefit of the abbey of Reading.

10ab5 Note

10ab5 corresponds to 10b in the Fox classification.