Short Cross Pennies

Class 6

Class 6a1 (c.1210-c.1213) - Spink 1353; North 974/1

Coins of class 6a1 are similar to those of 5c, but the letter X of REX now has straight limbs that do not cross at right angles. The pearls in the crown-band tend to be smaller than those of class 5c, and the diameter of the obverse inner circle tends to be noticeably smaller. The hair consists of two ringlets each side of the head.


Mints: London

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Class 6a2 (c.1210-c.1213) - Spink 1353; North 974/2

Coins of class 6a2 are closely similar to those of 6a1, but the letter X now has short round-ended limbs that cross at right angles. (This form of the letter continues to be used through to class 7c3.)


Mints: Durham, London

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Class 6b1 (c.1213-c.1215) - Spink 1354; North 975/1

Coins of class 6b1 have a coarser bust with beard whiskers that tend to spread out radially rather than more vertically, as in preceding classes. The hair curls continue to be depicted as two ringlets either side of the head. The eyes often have a blob-like appearance, as the shallow depressions that form the pupils are susceptible to wear and weak striking. The lettering is becoming coarse and tall. The X remains as for class 6a2.


Mints: London

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Class 6b2 (c.1213-c.1215) - Spink 1354; North 975/2

Class 6b2 coins have an elongated oblong bust, often of unnatural proportions. The nose is often thin with external nostrils depicted by small pellets. The eyes, like those of 6b1, often have a blob-like appearance. The lettering is coarse and tall. The hair curls continue to be depicted as two ringlets either side of the head.


Mints: Canterbury, London

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Class 6c1 (c.1215-c.1216) - Spink 1355; North 976/1

Coins of class 6c1 have a triangular bust, often of unnatural elongated proportions, which give it an emaciated look (gallery images 1 and 2). The 'triangular' description, however, should be interpreted loosely, as there are several stylistic variants of the bust within the 6c1 sub-class (see 6c1 note below and gallery image 3). The nose often has external nostrils depicted by small pellets. The eyes now tend to be teardrop-shaped with clear pupils, even when quite worn. The lettering is coarse and tall. The hair curls continue to be depicted as two ringlets either side of the head.


Mints: Bury, Canterbury, London

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Class 6c2 (c.1216-c.1217) - Spink 1355A; North 976/2

Coins of class 6c2 are easily distinguished from their immediate predecessors, as the number of hair curls is now three each side of the head. They are distinguishable from their successors by having one or more ornamental letters in both obverse and reverse legends. The letters that are known to occur in ornamental form are: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, L, N, R, T and V, but the extent of ornamentation may be minimal (e.g. an out-turned tail on H or R). For further examples of ornamental letters, see the Letters section on the Identification Aids page.


Mints: Bury, Canterbury, London

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Class 6c3 (c.1217) - Spink 1355; North 976/3

Coins of class 6c3 are similar to those of 6c2 in respect of the 3/3 hair curls, but they have no ornamental letters. They are often found muled with class 6c2 either as 6c2/6c3 or as 6c3/6c2, and occasionally with 6d as 6c3/6d or 6d/6c3.


Mints: Bury, Canterbury, London, Winchester, York

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Class 6d ((1217/18) - Spink 1355C; North 977

Coins of class 6d have new lettering with tall slender uprights, and at least one N is pellet-barred. Usually a large bust with three (rarely two) hair ringlets either side. Mules of 6c3/6d, 6d/6c3, 6d/7a and 7a/6d occur.


Mints: Bury, Canterbury, London

6d Bury.jpg

Class 6x (1215/16) - Spink 1355B; North 976/4

Coins of class 6x have a large head with two hair ringlets each side. The king's title is divided thus RE/X by the sceptre, the only instance of this in the whole of class 6. The X also has longer limbs than are found elsewhere within class 6. Mules of class 6c1/6x are known.


Mints: Canterbury

6x Canterbury.jpg

6c1 Note

As indicated in the description above, there are several stylistic variants of the bust in class 6c1. Jeffrey Mass (SCBI 56) identifies four discrete types, which are summarised below.
• The classic elongated triangular bust with its emaciated look.
• A shorter, rounder and 'softer' bust, not punched so deeply into the die, and with the beard bristles barely visible.
• A combination of elements of the two previous styles, resulting in a smaller, less sharply angular bust with a less 'unhealthy' look.
• A tallish bust, more oblong than strictly triangular, resembling some of those of class 6b2.

(Opinions regarding the attribution of the last of the above variants to 6b2 or 6c1 may differ between recognised specialists.)