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Short Cross Pennies

Rhuddlan Classification

 

The short cross coins of the Welsh mint of Rhuddlan were struck from locally made dies, whereas all the English mints received their dies from London. The classification of the main series is based on progressive changes made to the London dies, which, although reflected to some degree by the Rhuddlan coins, cannot be applied directly to them. The present classification is based on a paper by John Brand, The Short Cross Coins of Rhuddlan (BNJ 34, 1965), in which the coins are divided into five main classes, the second and third of which are further divided into five and three sub-classes respectively. The Rhuddlan classes are denoted by lower case Roman numerals in order to avoid confusion with the upper case numerals often assigned to the main series. Four moneyers operated during the Rhuddlan coinage: Halli, Tomas, Simon(d) and Henricvs.

Class i (c.1180 - c.1190) - North 972/1

  • General: Head similar to English coins of class 1, but face tends to be broader

  • Moneyer: Halli

  • Letter N: Reversed

  • Letter C: Normal

  • Crown pearl configuration: 1/3/5

  • Hair type: Crescent curls

  • Initial mark: Cross pattée

i Rhuddlan.jpg

Class iia (c.1190 - pre1205) - North 972/2

  • General: Head similar to class i, but becoming coarser and with fewer curls to look more like English coins of class 3

  • Moneyer: Halli (reverse legend retrograde)

  • Letter N: Reversed

  • Letter C: Has appearance of E

  • Crown pearl configuration: 1/3/5

  • Hair type: Crescent curls

  • Initial mark: Cross pommée

Note! The coin illustrated is a i/iia mule.

i-iia Mule Rhuddlan.jpg

Class iib (c.1190 - pre1205) - North 972/2

  • General: Head similar to class i, but becoming coarser and with fewer curls to look more like English coins of class 3

  • Moneyer: Tomas

  • Letter N: Reversed

  • Letter C: Has appearance of E

  • Crown pearl configuration: 1/3/5

  • Hair type: Crescent curls

  • Initial mark: Cross pommée

Placeholder.jpg

Class iic (c.1190 - pre1205) - North 972/2

  • General: Head similar to class i, but becoming coarser and with fewer curls to look more like English coins of class 3

  • Moneyer: Tomas

  • Letter N: Reversed

  • Letter C: Has appearance of E

  • Crown pearl configuration: 1/3/5

  • Hair type: Crescent curls

  • Initial mark: Cross pommée with bottom pellet on beaded inner circle

iic Rhuddlan.jpg

Class iid (c.1190 - pre1205) - North 972/2

  • General: Head similar to class i, but becoming coarser and with fewer curls to look more like English coins of class 3

  • Moneyer: Tomas

  • Letter N: Reversed

  • Letter C: Has appearance of E

  • Crown pearl configuration: 1/3/5

  • Hair type: Crescent curls

  • Initial mark: Cross pommée with bottom pellet on beaded inner circle, and additional central pellet

iid Rhuddlan.jpg

Class iie (c.1190 - pre1205) - North 972/2

  • General: Head similar to class i, but becoming coarser and with fewer curls to look more like English coins of class 3

  • Moneyer: Simon(d)

  • Letter N: Reversed

  • Letter C: Has appearance of E

  • Crown pearl configuration: 1/3/5

  • Hair type: Crescent curls

  • Initial mark: Cross pattée

iie Rhuddlan.jpg

Class iiia (c.1205 - c.1210) - North 973/1

  • General: Head similar to English coins of class 5

  • Moneyer: Simon

  • Letter N: Normal

  • Letter C: Normal

  • Crown pearl configuration: 1/3/5

  • Hair type: Ringlet curls

  • Initial mark: Cross pommée

Placeholder.jpg

Class iiib (c.1205 - c.1210) - North 973/1

  • General: Head similar to English coins of class 5

  • Moneyer: Simond

  • Letter N: Normal

  • Letter C: Normal

  • Crown pearl configuration: 1/2/5

  • Hair type: Crescent curls

  • Initial mark: Cross pommée

iiib Rhuddlan.jpg

Class iiic (c.1205 - c.1210) - North 973/1

  • General: Head similar to English coins of class 5

  • Moneyer: Simond

  • Letter N: Normal

  • Letter C: Normal

  • Crown pearl configuration: 1/2/5

  • Hair type: Ringlet curls

  • Initial mark: Cross pommée

iiic Rhuddlan.jpg

Class iv (c.1210) - North 973/2

  • General: Distinctive head (see image) based on English coins of class 5

  • Moneyer: Simod (reverse legend retrograde)

  • Letter N: Normal

  • Letter C: Has appearance of E

  • Crown pearl configuration: 1/2/5

  • Hair type: Ringlet curls

  • Initial mark: Cross pommée

iv Rhuddlan.jpg

Class v (c.1210 - c.1215) - North 973/3

  • General: Debased crude head

  • Moneyer: Henricvs

  • Letter N: Normal

  • Letter C: Normal

  • Crown pearl configuration: 1/2/5

  • Hair type: Ringlet curls

  • Initial mark: Cross pattée

Placeholder.jpg

Class i Note

Mass (SCBI 56) dates the start of the Rhuddlan coinage at c.1190, i.e. ten years later than Brand.

Class iiia / iiib Note

Mass (SCBI 56) argues that Brand's class iiib precedes his class iiia.