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Long Cross Pennies

Tables of Mints and Moneyers

The tables below reflect the Churchill/Thomas classification, as described in their 2012 publication, The Brussels Hoard of 1908. It should be noted in particular that some coins now assigned to class 2b (specifically 2b1) would formerly have been labelled 2a. Likewise, some coins that would formerly have been labelled 3c are now assigned to 3a (specifically 3a2), while others are now assigned to 3d.


X = True coin known (i.e. both obverse and reverse of indicated class).
Mo = Only known as a mule with an obverse of the indicated class. Reverse is of preceding class (indicated <) or following class (indicated >).
Mr = Only known as a mule with a reverse of the indicated class. Obverse is of preceding class (indicated <) or following class (indicated >).
? = Existence of coin uncertain, requires confirmation.
The ecclesiastical moneyers of Canterbury and York are suffixed by a cross (+) in the tables.



Note 1, Bristol
Roger is not listed in the De Moneta of Nicholas Oresme, and his surname is unknown. It appears that he replaced Henri, whose name only occurs on coins up to class 3b, the same class in which Roger’s coins commence.


Note 2, Canterbury
Five Roberts are mentioned in various rolls as moneyers at Canterbury: Robert de Cantuaria, Robert of Cantuaria son of Robert of Cantuaria, Robert de Cambio, Robert Wylof and Robert Weterlok. It is possible that the last two names refer to the same men mentioned as of Canterbury (Cantuaria) or of the Exchange (Cambio). The first three named are separate individuals, but their coins cannot be differentiated.


Note 3, Canterbury
Three Williams served as moneyers at Canterbury during the long cross coinage. The first, possibly named William Hardel, was very probably the same man who was signing his coins ‘Willelm’ at the end (class 8c, c.1244-47) of the short cross coinage. All coins up to the end of class 3 will be of this moneyer, as the next appointment of a William was in May/June 1250. This appointment was of William Cokyn, who was granted dies at the same time as John Terri. If, as seems likely, Cokyn commenced striking in the same class as Terri, coins of class 4 onwards may be attributable to him. However, as the first William may have continued in office after the appointment of the second, both may have contributed to the output, and there is no means by which the coins can be differentiated. The third William – William de Gloucestre – was appointed 8 May 1255 and probably commenced striking in class 5c, as he did at London, for which he also received a die at the same time. The situation from this point onwards is that coins of class 5c to 5g (the last to bear a Willem signature) could have been struck by any of the three Williams or by all of them.


Note 4, Lincoln
The De Moneta of Nicholas Oresme names Iohannes de Luda, Ricardus de Ponte, Willelmus de Paris and Willelmus Brand as the four moneyers of the provincial mint of Lincoln. The coins bear the three signatures, Ion, Ricard and Willem, as would be expected, but additionally the name Walter is found on them. A simple explanation might have been that Walter replaced one of the four named moneyers as a result of death or removal from office, but this explanation is negated by the fact that all four moneyers struck in exactly the same classes from 2b to 3c for the duration the mint operated. It therefore seems more likely that in one case Nicholas Oresme wrote Willelmus in error for Walterus when he listed the moneyers. The case for such a slip is strengthened by the fact that he made a similar error when listing the mints, omitting Northampton, but naming Norwich twice.


Note 5, Wilton
The De Moneta of Nicholas Oresme names Hugo Goldrun, Iohannes Berte, Willelmus filius Radulfi and Willelmus Prior as the four moneyers of the provincial mint of Wilton. Coins bearing the signature Willem were almost certainly struck by both the Williams, but we are unable to differentiate them.

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