Long Cross Pennies

Chronology and Dating

The sequence in which the various classes and sub-classes of long cross pennies were struck is fairly clear from a combination of contemporary records and evidence provided by the coins themselves. The coin evidence is gleaned from the moneyers named on their reverses, the dies and punches used in their manufacture, and information arising from the discovery of hoards.

The early classes, 1 to 4, can be dated quite closely, but the later ones, 5 to 7, which were produced over a much longer period of time, present a greater challenge. The best clues are provided by contemporary records, mainly those dealing with the appointment, succession and death of some of the moneyers. These are considered in more detail in a separate section of the article (see link below).

The dates shown below are based on the assumption that all the classes are sequential, but some of the sub-classes may have been struck concurrently, or at least have overlapped. In this context it is important to bear in mind that the sub-classes are artificial; they have been created and assigned by 20th century numismatists and would be quite meaningless to a 13th century mint official. Further details regarding dating, and an indication of the margins of error, are given in the documentary evidence section.

Class 1a

Class 1b

Class 2a

Class 2b

Class 3a and 3ab

Class 3b and 3bc

Class 3c

Class 3d

Class 4

Class 5a

Class 5b

Class 5c

Class 5d 

Class 5e

Class 5f

Class 5g

Class 5h

Class 5i

Class 6

Class 7


1247 - 1248



1248 - 1249


1249 - 1250


1250 - 1251

1251 - c.1253


c.1253 - c.1256



c.1257 - c.1258

c.1258 - c.1270

c.1270 - c.1272


c.1272 - c.1275

c.1275 - 1278