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Long Cross Pennies

Class 5 sub-classes

Class 5a1 (1251 - c1253)

  • Round eyes formed by a pellet in a circle

  • Letter R is ball-tailed

  • Letter X has straight limbs

  • Central ornament of crown is a large and well defined fleur

  • Small crescents in obverse field between/below curls

  • Chin is usually rounded

  • Half-fleur at each end of crown

Class 5a2 (1251 - c1253)

  • Round eyes formed by a pellet in a circle

  • Letter R is ball-tailed

  • Letter X has straight limbs

  • Central ornament of crown is a large and well defined fleur

  • Small crescents in obverse field between/below curls

  • Chin is usually rounded

  • Pellet each end of crown

Class 5a3 (1251 - c1253)

  • Round eyes formed by a pellet in a circle

  • Letter R is ball-tailed

  • Letter X has one straight and one S-shaped limb

  • Central ornament of crown is a large and well defined fleur

  • Small crescents in obverse field between/below curls

  • Chin is usually rounded

  • Pellet at each end of crown

Class 5b1 (c1253)

  • Round eyes formed by a pellet in a circle

  • Letter R is wedge-tailed

  • Central ornament of crown is a large and well defined fleur

  • Small crescents in obverse field between/below curls

  • Chin is usually pointed

  • Half-fleur at each end of crown

Class 5b2 (c1253)

  • Round eyes formed by a pellet in a circle

  • Letter R is wedge-tailed

  • Central ornament of crown is a large and well defined fleur

  • Small crescents in obverse field between/below curls

  • Chin is usually pointed

  • Pellet at each end of crown

Class 5c1 (c1253 - c1256)

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  • Oval or almond-shaped eyes formed by a pellet in an ellipse

  • Letter R is ball-tailed

  • Central ornament of crown is a large and well defined fleur

  • Small crescents and/or pellets in obverse field between/below curls

Class 5c2 (c1253 - c1256)

  • Oval or almond-shaped eyes formed by a pellet in an ellipse

  • Letter R is wedge-tailed

  • Central ornament of crown is a large and well defined fleur

  • Small crescents and/or pellets in obverse field between/below curls

Class 5c3 (c1253 - c1256)

  • Oval or almond-shaped eyes formed by a pellet in an ellipse

  • Letter R is wedge-tailed

  • Central ornament of crown is a trefoil of pellets, somewhat resembling that of sub-class 5h

  • Small crescents and/or pellets in obverse field between/below curls

  • Canterbury mint only

Class 5d1 (c1256)

  • Unusual bust of very crude style

  • Crown has low central fleur and half-fleurs at each end

  • Pellets in obverse field between/below curls

  • Unusual mint signatures, e.g. KAN for Canterbury, BERI for Bury St Edmunds

Class 5d2 (c1256)

  • Unusual bust of reasonably good style

  • Crown has low central fleur and half-fleurs at each end

  • Pellets in obverse field between/below curls

  • Unusual mint signatures, e.g. KAN for Canterbury, BERI for Bury St Edmunds

Class 5d3 (c1256)

  • Unusual bust of very fine style

  • Crown has low central fleur and half-fleurs at each end

  • Crown has double band

  • Pellets in obverse field between/below curls

  • Unusual mint signatures, e.g. KAN for Canterbury, BERI for Bury St Edmunds

 

Note: The coin illustrated is a class 5d3/5e mule under the Churchill/Thomas classification, as the mint name is of a normal form, i.e. CANTER.

Class 5e (c1257)
 

  • Unusual style of bust, resembling some of those of 5d

  • Crown has a double band with four pellets between ('jewelled crown')

  • Pellets in obverse field between/below curls

Class 5f (c1257 - c1258)

  • Bust resembles class 5c

  • Crown has double band with central fleur and pellet ornament at each end

  • Central fleur of crown smaller than on classes 5a-5c

  • Pellets in obverse field between/below curls

Class 5g (c1258 - c1270)

  • Bust resembles 5f, but on later coins the face becomes narrower

  • Crown has single band with low central fleur and pellet ornament at each end

  • Pellets in obverse field between/below curls

  • Letter R has 'stubby' notched tail

Class 5h (c1270 - c1272)

  • Central ornament of crown consists of three pellets, initially in triangular formation, but progressively degenerating into a line of pellets along the top of the band

Class 5i (c1272)

  • Degenerate version of 5h

  • Beard often consists of three lines of pellets

  • Eyes are abnormally large

  • The three letters ENR of HENRICVS are often ligated

Notes regarding class 5 sub-classes

 

Ron Churchill and Bob Thomas, authors of The Brussels Hoard of 1908 (2012), describe an additional sub-class of 5a, which they designate 5a4. It comprises a very few coins, all of which are from a single obverse die of Canterbury. The obverse of the coin has a double-banded crown with four pellets between the bands, and closely resembles coins of class 5e.

M R Vosper has published a paper describing the class 5d varieties on his website (see Bibliography). The classification subsequently published in The Brussels Hoard of 1908  applies the same criteria.
 

Lawrence regarded class 5h as the later phase of class 5g in which style was progressively deteriorating. He barely mentions class 5i in the text of his paper, but includes it in his table of classes. The point at which the deterioration in style of class 5h coins warrants applying the 5i label is subjective, and opinions will differ between experienced numismatists.