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Long Cross Pennies

Class 2 sub-classes

Class 2a (1248)

  • The initial mark is an irregular five or six-pointed star with long, slender points.

  • The bust is of similar style to those used on class 1 coins. (The earlier coins have five pellets under the crown band, as the illustrated example.)

  • The arms of the letter X in REX are curved and the ends are flat. The letter is formed by two comma-shaped punches either side of an oblique stroke. 

Class 2b1 (1248)

  • The initial mark is a regular six-pointed star with shorter, broader points, two of which are invariably horizontal.

  • The bust is of similar style to those used on early class 3 coins.

  • The arms of the letter X in REX are curved and the ends are flat. The letter is formed by two comma-shaped punches either side of an oblique stroke. 

Class 2b2 (1248)

  • As 2b1, except that the arms of the letter X in REX are almost straight.

Notes regarding class 2 sub-classes

In Lawrence's original classification (1912-15), the coins of class 2 were not divided into sub-classes.

The first refinement was made by Davis (BNJ 47, 1977), who divided the coins into two sub-classes (2a and 2b). The classification was based on the shape of the letter X, the arms of which are curved on earlier coins and straight on later ones.

Churchill and Thomas (The Brussels Hoard of 1908, 2012) revised the Davis classification and created three sub-classes (2a, 2b1 and 2b2). The distinction between 2a and 2b is based on the style of the bust and the shape of the star forming the initial mark. The lesser distinction between 2b1 and 2b2 is again based on the shape of the letter X. This revision results in certain coins that would formerly (under the Davis classification) have been in class 2a now being placed in class 2b1. Under the Churchill/Thomas classification, class 2b marks the beginning of the 'provincial phase', when mints around the country were temporarily brought into operation to assist with the recoinage of 1248-1250.

Mules occur between class 2 coins and class 1b coins.